尊敬語 - Respectful Expressions

See 敬語 - Honorific Expressions

尊敬語(Sonkeigo) are expressions used to describe the listener of the person referred to, as well as things connected with him/her actions

VERBS

① Respectful verbs

The same verbs used in the passive (受身形 (ukemi kei) / Passive form & How to use Passive form) are used as respectful verbs. They are Group II verbs

中村さんは 7時に 来られます。(←中村さんは7時に来ます。Nakamura san wa shichiji ni kimasu)
Nakamura san wa shichiji ni koraremasu.
Mr.Nakamura will come at 7:00

お酒をやめられたんですか。 (←お酒をやめたんですか。Osake wo yameta n desu ka?)
Osake wo yamerareta n desu ka?
Have you given up drinking? (Have you quit [to drink] Sake?)

② おV ます-form になります

This pattern is considered politer than the respectful verbs mentioned above. Verbs whose  ます-form consist of one more (見ます/mimasu/see,look at, watch、寝ます /nemasu/sleep; etc.) and group III (only 来ます/kimasu/come、します/shimasu/do、Nします such as 勉強します/benkyou shimasu/study; etc) verbs cannot be used in this pattern. As for the verbs which have special equivalents, note that the special equivalents rather than this pattern are used.

社長は もう お帰りに なりました
Shachou wa mou okaeri ni narimashita.
The president has already left for home.

③ Special Respectful Words

Some verbs have special respectful equivalents. They are considered to show the same level of respect as  above








































くれます   →くださいます
kuremasu.......kudasaimasu
"give (me)"

知っています   →ご存じです
shitte imasu..........gozonji desu
"know"

持っています   →お持ちです
motte imasu.........omachi desu
"have"

です   →でいらっしゃいます
desu.........de irasshaimasu
"be"

V て-form います   →V て-form いらっしゃいます
--------------------------------------------------------
ワット先生は 研究室に いらっしゃいます。(←ワット先生は 研究室に います。Watto sensei wa kenkyuushitsu ni imasu)
Watto sensei wa kenkyuushitsu ni irasshaimasu.
Professor Watt is in the laboratory.

[NOTE]

いらっしゃいます、なさいます、くださいます and おっしゃいます are Group I verbs (いっらしゃる、なさる、くださる and おっしゃる), but except for the ます-form, they change their form in the ら-row when they conjugate

ワット先生は テニスを なさます。(ワット先生は テニスを します。Watto sensei wa tenisu wo shimasu)
Watto sensei wa tenisu wo nasaimasu.
Does Professor Watt play tennis?
・・・いいえ、なさない と思います。
Iie, nasaranai to omoimasu.
No, I don't think so (I think he doesn't play)

④ おV  ます-form ください

This is respectful way of instructing or inviting someone to do something.

あちらから お入り ください。
Achira kara ohairi kudasai.
Please enter from over there.

[NOTE]

The special words you learned in  above CANNOT be used in this pattern. The exceptions are 召し上がります(meshiagarimasu) & ご覧に なります(goran ni narimasu), which are changed to お召し上がり ください(omeshiagari kudasai/ Please help yourself) & ご覧 ください(goran kudasai/ Please have a look) respectively.

NOUNS, ADJECTIVES & ADVERBS

In addition to verbs, some nouns, adjectives & adverbs can be turned into 尊敬語(Sonkeigo/ Respectful Expressions) by attaching お & ご to the front of the word. The choice between お &  ご depends on the word. Basically お is attached to words of Japanese origin, while ご is attached to words of Chinese origin.

(N)
お国、お名前、お仕事
okuni, onamae, oshigoto
[国 kuni (country)、名前 namae (name)、仕事 shigoto (work, occupation)]

ご家族、ご意見、ご旅行
gokazoku, goiken, goryokou
[家族 kazoku (family)、意見 iken (opinion)、旅行 ryokou (trip, tour)]

(な-adj)
お元気、お上手、お暇
ogenki, ojouzu, ohima

ご熱心、ご親切
gonesshin, goshinsetsu

(い-adj)
お忙しい、お若い
oisogashii, owakai

(adverb)
ご自由に、ご一緒に
gojiyuuni, goisshoni

~ Anh

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