敬語 - Honorific Expressions

敬語(Keigo) are expressions used to show the speaker's respect for the listener or the person being referred to. The speaker is expected to shoe respect depending on his/her relationship with the listener or the person being referred to.

There are the following three factors that should be considered in deciding the use of 敬語:
(1) When the speaker is junior or lower in social status, (s)he use 敬語 to show respect to the person senior or higher in social status.
(2) When the speaker does not have a close acquaintanceship with the listener, as is typical when the speaker first meets the listener, (s)he uses 敬語 to show respect to the listener.
(3) The 内(uchi)ー外(soto) relationship should also be taken into consideration with regard to the use of 敬語. The speaker's group such as his/her family & company, etc., are considered as , and other groups are considered as. When the speaker talks about 内の人(ushi no hito/ an insider) to 外の人(soto no hito/ an outsider), the insider is treated like the speaker himself/herself. Therefore, even if the insider is senior or higher in status, the speaker CANNOT use 敬語 in the way that shows respect to the insider.


TYPE OF 敬語
敬語(Keigo) are classified into 3 types:  
尊敬語(Sonkeigo/ Respectful Expressions) 
謙譲語(Kenjougo/ Humble Expressions)  
丁寧語(Teineigo/ Polite Expressions)


敬語 AND STYLE OF SENTENCE
A sentence can end with a plain form of 敬語, which makes the sentence a plain style sentence. This kind of sentence appears on occasions such as when the person being referred to be shown respect.

部長は何時にいらっしゃる
Buchou wa nanji ni irassharu?
What time will the general manager come?
(いらっしゃる is the respectful equivalent of いる、行く and 来る)


UNIFORM LEVEL OF 敬語 IN A SENTENCE
In honorific expressions, replacing some of the words in a sentence with 敬語 does not suffice. It is NECESSARY to keep a uniform level of 敬語 throughout the entire sentence.

部長の奥様も ご一緒に ゴルフに 行かれます。
Buchou no okusama mo go isshoni gorufu ni ikaremasu.
The general manager's wife will also go golfing together with him.

奥様(okusama) & ご一緒に(go isshoni) are used instead of  奥さん(okusan) & 一緒に(isshoni) in order to be consistent with the respectful verb 行かれます.


~まして
You change V て-form  to V  ます-form  まして when you want to be very polite.
In a sentence with 敬語, ~まして(mashite) is often used consistency.

ハンスが ゆうべ 熱を 出しまして、今朝も まだ 下がらないんです。
................................(出して)..................................................
Hansu ga yuube netsu wo dashimashite, kesa mo mada sagaranai n desu.
Hans run a fever last night & still not fall this morning.(still has a fever)


~ Anh

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