Japanese writing system - developed lesson of the alphabet

there are three kinds of characters in japanese : hiragana , katakana and kanji 

all three characters can be used in a single sentence 
this is a book about engineer

これは : hiragana
エンジニア: katakana
本 : Kanji

-hiragana and katakana like the alphabet represent sounds 
-kanji or chinese characters represent not just sounds but also 
meanings used for nouns and the stems of verbs and adjectives


there are 46 basic hiragana syllables 
has a roundish shape 
used for : 
          -conjugation endings 
          -function words
          -native japanese words

hiragana principle characters table

Hiragana with Diacriticals Marks 
you can transcribe 23 additional sounds by adding diacritical marks 
with a pair of short diagonal strokes ( " ) 
k" = g
s" = z
t" = d 
h"= b
h°= p (smal circle ° is special of h letter )

Hiragana with Diacriticals Marks

Transcribing coutracted sounds :

small ぁ,ゅ,and ょ follow after letters in the second column 
(i-vowel hiragana exepte い ) and are used to transcribe 
countracted sounds . 
the contracted sound represents a single syllable 

Transcribing coutracted sounds for hiragana

Transcribing double consonants :
there is another small letter っ,wich is used when transcribing 
double constants such as tt and pp.

examples :
かった katta (won)
さっか sakka (writer)
はっぱ happa (leaf)
わっし zasshi (magazine)

we don't use っ with double n (nn) 
examples :
さんねん sannen (3 years)
あんない annai (guide)

Other issues relating to transcription and pronunciation :
long vowels :
when the same vowel is placed one right after the order , the pronunciation 
of the vowel becomes about twice as long as the single vowel

aa ... おばあさん obaasan 

◕ with straight lines 
◕ used for loanwords and foreign names
◕ the same as hiragana you can find :
               -katakana with Diacriticals Marks
               -Transcribing coutracted sounds
               -Transcribing double consonants ...

katakana principle characters table

katakana with Diacriticals Marks

Transcribing coutracted sounds for katakana

but long vowels : are written with  :
examples :
  kaa (car)
スキ sukii (ski)

~ Yahia 

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